1.1 Purpose: Upper rectal cancer management is controversial. The present series reports the outcomes of treatment comparing neoadjuvant chemoradiation (NCRT) versus upfront surgery.
1.2. Methods and materials: In this retrospective study we enrolled patients with upper rectal or sigmoid junction locally advanced tumors (stages II-III). At the first Institution patients received NCRT followed by surgery (study group); at the second Institution patients were referred to upfront surgery (control group). Overall survival was the main endpoint of the analysis. Local relapse and other clinical variables were also analyzed.